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"I think you guys [gals ?] are the best. Free shipping on hammer products and super fast service. What's not to like?"

Nancy H.


Proline Sports Nutrition & Equipment,

I was shopping for the product below using Google as which time I saw your Google add. This was the first I heard of your company. I went to your site and liked what I saw and proceeded to order the Optygen HP. The order was placed on late Friday afternoon and was delivered (to my surprise) on Saturday. Your service is awesome as well as your price match guarantee. There is no doubt that I will continue to use you in the future, as well as recommend you to others.


Brian H
Aurora, IL
 I am very impressed with your customer service.  I was worried about getting my order with a marathon a week and a half out.  Wow, less than 24 hours and my order was sitting on the porch.  That is phenominal service.  I will definately shop with you again.  I have had free shipping take 10 days.  Proline Sports Nutrition is a site I will recommend to my many running/cycling buddies.  Thanks for the great response.  BTW, that info on the Hammer Nutrition products was wonderful!!  It helped me hone in on my nutrition/hydration plan for my marathon.  I printed off the entire 120 pages!  This is my 4th marathon.  I've trained hard, and my Hammer plan I do believe will give me a PR.

Chondroitin Sulfate

Synovial fluid chondroitin and keratan sulphate epitopes, glycosaminoglycans, and hyaluronan in arthritic and normal knees.

Ann Rheum Dis (ENGLAND) May 1997, 56 (5) p299-307


To determine concentrations of chondroitin sulphate (CS) and keratan sulphate (KS) epitopes, glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) and hyaluronan (HA) in knee synovial fluid (SF) from normal subjects and patients with osteoarthritis (OA) or rheumatoid arthritis (RA), to test whether these variables may be used as markers of the OA process.


OA was subdivided into large joint OA (LJOA), nodal generalised OA (NGOA), and OA with calcium pyrophosphate crystal deposition (CPA). Clinical assessment of inflammation (0-6) was undertaken on OA and RA knees. Knee SF was examined by enzyme linked immunosorbent assay for: CS epitopes, using monoclonal antibodies 3-B-3 and 7-D-4; KS epitope using monoclonal antibody 5-D-4; and HA, using biotinylated HA binding region of cartilage proteoglycan. Total sulphated GAGs were measured by dye binding with 1:9 dimethylmethylene blue.


Increased SF 3-B-3 concentrations and 3-B-3/GAG ratio were found in OA, compared with RA or normal knees, with higher 3-B-3 and 3-B-3/GAG in LJOA and NGOA than in CPA. SF 7-D-4 and 7-D-4/GAG were reduced in RA, compared with normal and OA; SF 5-D-4 was reduced in OA compared with normal. GAG and HA concentrations were decreased in both OA and RA. No correlations with radiographic scores were observed, but SF 7-D-4 was lower in 'inflamed' compared with 'non- inflamed' RA and OA knees. In patients with bilateral samples there were strong correlations between right and left knees for all SF variables.


Changed concentrations of SF CS and KS can be detected in OA with a profile that differs from that seen in RA. Clinical subgrouping and local joint inflammation may influence these measures, supporting different pathogenesis within OA subgroups and requirement for careful patient characterisation in SF studies.

Immunocytomorphopathological studies on the pathogenesis of rheumatoid arthritis.

Rom J Morphol Embryol (ROMANIA) Jan-Jun 1996, 42 (1-2) p13- 32

Thirty cases of rheumatoid arthritis were submitted to cytomorphological, histopathological (HE, VG, PAS Alcian, Gomori, Safranine O), histoenzymological (Acid Phosphatase, chondroitin-sulphatase, Peroxidase) and immunological (rheumatoid factor (RF)) studies; circulating immune complexes, anti-collagen antibodies II, Reactive C protein (CRP), Complementary C3 fraction were also assessed. The synoviocytogram of the rheumatoid synovial fluid (SF) indicated a cytosis with polynucleosis and ragocytosis compared to the hydroarthrosic SF defined by lymphocytosis (47.8%). Enzymologically, especially for high titres of rheumatoid factor, a phosphatase and peroxidase activity was observed in polymorphonuclear cells of a ragocytary type and in phagocytic mononuclear cells. The severe forms of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) were correlated histopathologically with chronic villous synovitis associated with some processes of obliterant vascularitis, fibrosis and sclerosis. At the level of synovio-cartilage junction, fissures and a homogenization of the cartilaginous fundamental substance in the vicinity of disintegrated synovial structures were noticed. Histoenzymologically, a lysosomal and oxidative activity was found in chondrocytes and in synovial macrophages. Immunological assessments (73 serum and 60 synovial fluid samples) showed pathological values of circulating immune complexes, anti-collagen antibodies and C reactive protein. The complementary synovial depletion of the C3 fraction underlines the immune character of the rheumatoid synovitis. The immunocytomorphologic data correlation demonstrates the involvement of immunologic and enzymatic factors in the evolution of Rheumatoid Arthritis.

Zonal distribution of chondroitin-4-sulphate/dermatan sulphate and chondroitin-6-sulphate in normal and diseased human synovium.

Ann Rheum Dis (ENGLAND) Jan 1994, 53 (1) p35-8


Chondroitin sulphate is the major sulphated glycosaminoglycan present in the extracellular matrix of soft connective tissues and the aim of this study was to investigate the distribution of chondroitin sulphate species in normal and diseased synovium.


Distribution of chondroitin-4-sulphate/dermatan sulphate (Ch4S/DS) and chondroitin-6-sulphate in normal (n = 6), osteoarthritic (n = 4) and rheumatoid (n = 10) synovium was determined using an immunoperoxidase technique and specific monoclonal antibodies to chondroitinase ABC- digested preparations.


Ch4S/DS was expressed throughout the interstitium of all tissues and was also present on blood vessels in rheumatoid samples only. Ch6S was expressed in the lining layer of normal synovium but was absent from this site in osteoarthritic and rheumatoid tissues. Ch6S was also present on all blood vessels in all tissues.


The distinct zonal distributions of Ch4S/DS and Ch6S and their alteration in disease suggest these molecules have different and specific functions in normal and diseased synovium.

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