Skip to main content
Bookmark and Share
Client Login
Global Shipping Policies
Site Map
ProLine Blog
Link To Us
Product Search 
Client Login 
Email Address
Your Password
Forgot your password?
click here
Create an account
click here to create an account.

Chondroitin Sulfate

Synovial fluid chondroitin and keratan sulphate epitopes, glycosaminoglycans, and hyaluronan in arthritic and normal knees.

Ann Rheum Dis (ENGLAND) May 1997, 56 (5) p299-307


To determine concentrations of chondroitin sulphate (CS) and keratan sulphate (KS) epitopes, glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) and hyaluronan (HA) in knee synovial fluid (SF) from normal subjects and patients with osteoarthritis (OA) or rheumatoid arthritis (RA), to test whether these variables may be used as markers of the OA process.


OA was subdivided into large joint OA (LJOA), nodal generalised OA (NGOA), and OA with calcium pyrophosphate crystal deposition (CPA). Clinical assessment of inflammation (0-6) was undertaken on OA and RA knees. Knee SF was examined by enzyme linked immunosorbent assay for: CS epitopes, using monoclonal antibodies 3-B-3 and 7-D-4; KS epitope using monoclonal antibody 5-D-4; and HA, using biotinylated HA binding region of cartilage proteoglycan. Total sulphated GAGs were measured by dye binding with 1:9 dimethylmethylene blue.


Increased SF 3-B-3 concentrations and 3-B-3/GAG ratio were found in OA, compared with RA or normal knees, with higher 3-B-3 and 3-B-3/GAG in LJOA and NGOA than in CPA. SF 7-D-4 and 7-D-4/GAG were reduced in RA, compared with normal and OA; SF 5-D-4 was reduced in OA compared with normal. GAG and HA concentrations were decreased in both OA and RA. No correlations with radiographic scores were observed, but SF 7-D-4 was lower in 'inflamed' compared with 'non- inflamed' RA and OA knees. In patients with bilateral samples there were strong correlations between right and left knees for all SF variables.


Changed concentrations of SF CS and KS can be detected in OA with a profile that differs from that seen in RA. Clinical subgrouping and local joint inflammation may influence these measures, supporting different pathogenesis within OA subgroups and requirement for careful patient characterisation in SF studies.

Immunocytomorphopathological studies on the pathogenesis of rheumatoid arthritis.

Rom J Morphol Embryol (ROMANIA) Jan-Jun 1996, 42 (1-2) p13- 32

Thirty cases of rheumatoid arthritis were submitted to cytomorphological, histopathological (HE, VG, PAS Alcian, Gomori, Safranine O), histoenzymological (Acid Phosphatase, chondroitin-sulphatase, Peroxidase) and immunological (rheumatoid factor (RF)) studies; circulating immune complexes, anti-collagen antibodies II, Reactive C protein (CRP), Complementary C3 fraction were also assessed. The synoviocytogram of the rheumatoid synovial fluid (SF) indicated a cytosis with polynucleosis and ragocytosis compared to the hydroarthrosic SF defined by lymphocytosis (47.8%). Enzymologically, especially for high titres of rheumatoid factor, a phosphatase and peroxidase activity was observed in polymorphonuclear cells of a ragocytary type and in phagocytic mononuclear cells. The severe forms of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) were correlated histopathologically with chronic villous synovitis associated with some processes of obliterant vascularitis, fibrosis and sclerosis. At the level of synovio-cartilage junction, fissures and a homogenization of the cartilaginous fundamental substance in the vicinity of disintegrated synovial structures were noticed. Histoenzymologically, a lysosomal and oxidative activity was found in chondrocytes and in synovial macrophages. Immunological assessments (73 serum and 60 synovial fluid samples) showed pathological values of circulating immune complexes, anti-collagen antibodies and C reactive protein. The complementary synovial depletion of the C3 fraction underlines the immune character of the rheumatoid synovitis. The immunocytomorphologic data correlation demonstrates the involvement of immunologic and enzymatic factors in the evolution of Rheumatoid Arthritis.

Zonal distribution of chondroitin-4-sulphate/dermatan sulphate and chondroitin-6-sulphate in normal and diseased human synovium.

Ann Rheum Dis (ENGLAND) Jan 1994, 53 (1) p35-8


Chondroitin sulphate is the major sulphated glycosaminoglycan present in the extracellular matrix of soft connective tissues and the aim of this study was to investigate the distribution of chondroitin sulphate species in normal and diseased synovium.


Distribution of chondroitin-4-sulphate/dermatan sulphate (Ch4S/DS) and chondroitin-6-sulphate in normal (n = 6), osteoarthritic (n = 4) and rheumatoid (n = 10) synovium was determined using an immunoperoxidase technique and specific monoclonal antibodies to chondroitinase ABC- digested preparations.


Ch4S/DS was expressed throughout the interstitium of all tissues and was also present on blood vessels in rheumatoid samples only. Ch6S was expressed in the lining layer of normal synovium but was absent from this site in osteoarthritic and rheumatoid tissues. Ch6S was also present on all blood vessels in all tissues.


The distinct zonal distributions of Ch4S/DS and Ch6S and their alteration in disease suggest these molecules have different and specific functions in normal and diseased synovium.

Resources for Today's Endurance Athletes ®

Copyright © 2023 ProLine Sports Nutrition, Inc. ®

Email Customer Care

Disclaimer: While we work to ensure that product information is correct, on occasion manufacturers may alter their ingredient lists. Actual product packaging and materials may contain more and/or different information than that shown on this website. We recommend that you do not solely rely on the information presented and that you always read labels, warnings, and directions before using or consuming a product. For additional information about a product, please contact the manufacturer. Content on this Website is for reference purposes and is not intended to substitute for advice given by a physician, pharmacist, or other licensed health-care professional. You should not use this information as self-diagnosis or for treating a health problem or disease. Contact your health-care provider immediately if you suspect that you have a medical problem. Information and statements regarding dietary supplements have not been evaluated by the Food and Drug Administration and are not intended to diagnose, treat, cure, or prevent any disease or health condition. ProLine Sports Nutrition, Inc. ®