As a dietary supplement - take FOUR capsules 30 minutes to 45 minutes before exercise activity. For PHOSPHATE LOADING, for FOUR to FIVE days leading up to the race, take FOUR capsules of VO2 Max after lunch each day - OR - immediately before going to bed each night. DURING ACTIVITY: (long training rides/runs or races) Take TWO to THREE capsules of VANTAGE per hour of activity
Ingredients Thiamine (Vitamin B1); Riboflavin (Vitamin B2); Niacinamide (Vitamin B3); Vitamin B6 (as Pyridoxal-5'-Phosphate); Biotin; Pantothenic Acid (Vitamin B5 as (Calcium D-pantothenate); Magnesium (from Magnesium Phosphate Dibasic); Chromium Chelate; Sodium (from Sodium Phosphate Dibasic and Sodium R-Lipoate); Potassium (from Potassium Bicarbonate); L-Arginine Keto-Isocaproate; L-Ornithine Alpha-Ketoglutarate; L-Glycine; L-Carnosine; N,N-Dimethylglycine HCl; Betaine Anhydrous; Vanadium Citrate; Cordyceps Sinensis; Rhodiola Extract Rhodiola Rosea; Beta-Alanine (Carnosyn); Citrulline Malate; Coenzyme Q10; R-Lipoic Acid; Black Pepper Extract (to increase absorption and availability).
Use VO2 Max Endurance to:
- Optimize the ATP, lactic acid and oxidative energy systems, including the KREB's cycle
- Improve ATP (muscle energy) production
- Delay fatigue
- Spare muscle glycogen
- Prevent the onset of mental fatigue or perceived mental tiredness
- Extend endurance
- Reduce build-up of lactic acid
- Reduce ammonia burden
- ELEVATE ANAEROBIC THRESHOLD
- Improve oxygen availability/utilization
- Reduce muscle soreness
- Prevent cramping
- 150 Tablets
DURING ACTIVITY: (long training rides/runs or races)
Take TWO to THREE capsules of VANTAGE per hour of activity
Muscles fatigue and tie up when repeated resistance is applied. The burn finally makes it impossible to complete another rep. The biggest cause is lactic acid. Lactic acid, ammonia and other metabolic wastes build up in the muscles with repeated movements. The more anaerobic the exercise, the faster the build-up. Maximum strength output can tie up the muscles in just one rep. Rest becomes a must until lactic acid and other metabolic wastes are cleared or chemically reconverted before the exercise can continue. Recent studies show that a specific formulation of phosphates, amino acids, vitamins, and minerals, work in synergy to buffer lactic acid build-up and reduce the accumulation of ammonia.
Both anaerobic and endurance exercises increase phosphate needs. Studies (Dale G, et al) show pathologically low levels of blood phosphate in some individuals after intense exercise or endurance events. Repeated studies of phosphate supplementation that it buffers lactic acid (Kreider RB et al; Miller GW et al).
Phosphate supplementation raises the level of 2,3-diphosphoglycerate (2,3-DPG), the enzyme that unloads oxygen into muscle. Studies from various labs have shown repeatedly that phosphate supplementation reliably raises blood levels of 2,3-DPG (Farber M, et al; Cade R, et al; Stewart I et al). Phosphate supplementation, through its incorporation into numerous enzymes in energy production, improves the production and use of glycogen for fuel. There is evidence that supplemental phosphate has this effect (Chasiotis D.).
The phosphates in VO2 Max are in the form of sodium and magnesium, and Potassium is in the form of Bicarbonate, thereby providing phosphates plus a proper balance of essential macrominerals/electrolytes to maintain peak performance.
The synergistic and combined biochemical effects of VANTAGE VO2 Max (phosphate supplementation) on performance are dramatic. Results from various studies have shown that phosphate supplementation reduced lactic acid accumulation, increased 2,3-DPG production during exercise, increased VO2 Max by 11-12% and increased time to exhaustion by 20%.
In our clinical trials, we tested both anaerobic and endurance exercise. During anaerobic phosphate trials, maximal power output increased by 17%. That's equivalent to adding 51 lbs to a 300 lb maximum bench press. During the aerobic phosphate trials, time for the 40 km time trial on the ergometer bicycle was reduced by 3.5 minutes.
VO2 Max also contains L-Carnosine in its amino complex - Carnosine is the main buffer of muscle acid.
VO2 Max also contains CORDYCEPS CS-4, and RHODIOLA Root Extract of the highest quality.
Cordyceps has been found to have effects on hepatic function, renal function, endocrine system, and the cardiovascular system. (11) Its effects on the cardiovascular system, stamina and endurance have been proven. Several reports and studies have been done to provide evidence for the effects of Cordyceps on human performance. A study which was published in the Medicine and Science in Sports aand Exercise Journal, 2001, concluded that Cordyceps CS-4 supports normal fat mobilization and beta-oxidation, thereby preserving glycogen usage during prolonged exercise.
'A double blind, placebo-controlled independent study was conducted to find if oral administration of CS-4 resulted in enhanced endurance and resistance to fatigue. After three weeks of administration, the groups given CS-4 were able to swim significantly longer than the control groups. The results of the study were dose dependent with results of one group showing a 30% increase in endurance and the second group showing a 73% increase in endurance. The study concluded that the cardiotonic action, inhibition of tracheal constrictions and relaxation of vascular contractions (which CS-4 evokes) elevates the ability and endurance of exercise'. Another double blind, placebo-controlled study to test the effects on physical performance was performed in 1998 led by S. Morrissey of Beijing Medical University Sports Research Institute. They took 30 males and place them in two groups. Each group was given a different concoction, one a placebo. Blood samples measuring lactate levels were taken before, during max and after exercise. They found that the group given the formula containing cordyceps experienced improved lactate clearance. Researchers concluded that lactate clearance improved due to improved lactate energy metabolism within the cell. The author concluded that using this herbal formulation would enhance lactate clearance and allow athletes greater anaerobic performance .
Just like CordycepsCS-4, Rhodiola rosea is also an adaptogen, which means it works primarily as an endurance booster. It produces a normalizing action on the body, increasing resistance to adverse influences. The adaptogenic effects of Rhodiola have been demonstrated in numerous studies, resulting in increased resistance to the effects of physical and mental stress. Legend has it that the Vikings routinely consumed rhodiola rosea to boost their strength while on long campaigns. Eastern Europeans and Scandinavians also benefitted from the fatigue-fighting properties of rhodiola rosea. Most research on rhodiola rosea has been done by Russian and Scandinavian scientists, although American and Canadian nutritionists have begun their own studies in recent years. One leading theory is that rhodiola rosea directly affects the level of chemicals in the brain responsible for endurance and mood. The active ingredient in Rhodiola is a substance called rosavin, which seems to dramatically improve the physical endurance levels in studies. VO2 Max contains 3% standardized rosavin and is highly effective in promoting endurance. When taken as suggested rhodiola rosea can dramatically impact the body's overall energy level.
Ammonia Scavengers (OKG and KIC)
A second inhibitor of exercise, happening simultaneously with the accumulation of acidity, is accumulation of ammonia. All anaerobic and endurance exercises produce a lot of ammonia. Ammonia is toxic to all cells, reduces the formation of glycogen, and inhibits the energy cycle. The higher your blood ammonia the poorer your performance. So the second ingredient a successful ergogenic supplement has to do is to reduce ammonia accumulation.
L-Ornithine Alpha-ketoglutarate (OKG), which has the same carbon skeleton as glutamine, not only provides a substrate for glutamine, but contains virtually no ammonia. Far from adding to the ammonia burden, OKG acts in the body as an ammonia scavenger (Michel H, et al). OKG is crucial to reducing the ammonia burden. OKG also acts as a strong releaser of growth hormone, provides a ready source of glutamine, an anti-catabolic, and a support for the immune system.
Similarly, L-Arginine Ketoisocaproate, a compound of the amino acid Arginine and the keto-acid derivative of Leucine (amino acid), contains no ammonia. High protein diets essential to fast increase in muscle and strength, produce increasing amounts of ammonia from metabolism during intense training. Studies show that ketoisocaproate acts as a strong ammonia scavenger (Sapir G, et al). Ketoisocaproate is a big benefit for improved performance. In addition to scavenging ammonia, it spares muscle protein and promotes protein synthesis. Combination of KIC, OKG and other co-factors in the VANTAGE, provide the most potent anti-catabolic mix of amino acids yet known to science.
- Dale G, et al. Fitness, unfitness, and phosphate. British Medical Journal 1987; 294:939)
- Kreider RB, et al. Effects of phosphate loading on oxygen uptake, ventilatory anaerobic threshold and in performance. Med Sci Sports Exer 1990; 22:250-255
- Miller GW, et al. Effects of phosphate loading on anaerobic threshold. Med Sci Sports Exer 1991; 23:S35
- Farber M et al. Effect of decreased oxygen affininty of hemoglobin on work performance in healthy humans. J Lab Clin med 1984; 104:166-175
- Cade R, et al. Effects of phosphate loading on 2,3-diphosphoglycerate and maximal oxygen uptake. Med Sci Sports Exer 1984; 16:263-268
- Stewart I, McNaughton L. Phosphate loading and effects of VO2 Max in trained cyclists. Res Quart 1990; 61:80-84
- Chasiotis D. Role of cyclic AMP and inorganic phosphate in the regulation of glycogenolysis during exercise. Med Sci Sports Exer 1988; 20:545-550
- Kreider RB, et al. Effects of phosphate loading on metabolic and myocardial responses to maximal and endurance exercise. Int J Sports Nutr 1992; 2:20-47
- Michel H, Oge P, Bertrand L. Actionde 'alpha-cetoglutarate d'ornithine sur l;hyperammoniemie du cirrhotique. presse Med 1971; 19:867-868
- Sapir G, et al. Effects of ketoisocaproate on nitrogen metabolism. Lancet 1983; 1:1010-1014
- Journal of Food and Drug Analysis, Vol 8, No. 4, 2000, Pages 248-257 Pharmacological Functions of Chinese Medicinal Fungus Cordyceps sinensis and Related Species by Sheng-Yuan Wang and Ming-Shi Shiao
- Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise, 2001
- Akinobu, et al. 1995
- Burke, Edmund, 1998